Esperanto-based alphabet for Klingon (cin̂an ĥolvad esperanto n̂ucmej)

I’ve sketched out an Esperanto-based alphabet for Klingon, based on the following principles:

1. One letter per phoneme, one phoneme per letter.

2. Where the same sound exists in Esperanto and Klingon, the Klingon sound is mapped onto the Esperanto letter.

3. No letters with circumflexes can exist unless there is another letter without the circumflex. Hence /ʂ/ doesn’t map onto the letter Ŝ but rather S.

4. No non-Esperanto letters are permitted, except for new circumflexed versions of Esperanto letters.

Here is the result. The new alphabet is listed under “cin̂an ĥol” along with the IPA pronunciation, the standard Okrandian Latin alphabet, the pIqaD alphabetic mapping, and the “xifan hol” one-to-one Latin alphabet for comparison.

cinxan hxolWhat’s the point of this? Isn’t the alphabet one of the most criticized parts of Esperanto? Well, yes, it is. But it’s also very recognizable to me, and as far as one-to-one alphabets go, the Esperanto-based alphabet is slightly easier for me to read than xifan hol (which is just meant for keyboard mappings to pIqaD anyway, as far as I know).

Some common Klingon phrases in this alphabet:

Nukneĥ? = nuqneH? = What do you want?

Nukĝac? = nuqjatlh? = What did you say?

K̂aplah! = Qapla’! = Success!

Ĥegluhmeĥ k̂ak̂ ĝaĝvam. = Heghlu’meH QaQ jajvam. = It is a good day to die.

Cin̂an maĥ! = tlhIngan maH! = We’re Klingons!

Taĥ pag taĥbeh. = taH pagh taHbe’. = To be or not to be.

Obviously this can be written with the x-system as well. But to answer the question as to the point of this, I have no idea.

Idea for conlang pronoun system, partly inspired by Lojban

In Lojban you can declare pronouns that consistently refer back to nominals. This idea is very similar, but attempts to make the same concept slightly more naturalistic – a hybrid or “compromise” between logical and naturalistic. Most of the vocabulary in the examples given below is very European-derived, and if I took the concept further I might replace it.


With the exception of the inclusive first-person plural which is a combination of two other pronouns, pronouns take the pattern (C)V(n) where (n) is the optional letter n and, when used, signifies the plural.

In the first person there is a singular, inclusive plural, and exclusive plural: ti, tinren, and tin, respectively.

In the second person there is a singular and a plural: re and ren, respectively.

The generic third person pronoun is i, which also has singular and plural forms: i and in.

However, pronouns can also be declared with the particle let:

Let he Johano este viro. He amra katon.
(John is a man. He loves cats.)

Let xi Maria este fema. Xi amra katon.
(Maria is a woman. Xi loves cats.)

Let li Zamenhofo este mediko. Li amra katon.
(Zamenhof is a doctor. Li loves cats.)

Let lu Jepeseno este lingiso. Lu amra katon.
(Jespersen is a linguist. Lu loves cats.)

Let ri Kori este nobinari. Ri amra katon.
(Cory is nonbinary. Ri loves cats.)

Here he, xi, li, lu, and ri are assigned to the respective individuals: Johano, Maria, Zamenhofo, Jepeseno, Kori, and then the sentences as a whole are evaluated with the referent of the newly declared pronoun as the subject.

It might even be possible to extend this even further to non-pronouns, for example:

let Viki kato xel ti
(Viki = my cat)

let konlingo lingo wat homo akjo
(konlingo = language that a human makes)

Universalism, international auxiliary languages, and social justice

The universalist premise behind Esperanto is often described as “idealistic” and “utopian,” and can be summed up with its interna ideo (internal idea): “On the foundation of a neutral language eliminate the walls between the nations and make the people accustomed to each other, so that each of them will see in their neighbor only a human and a brother.” (Zamenhof, 1912, Parolado antaŭ la Oka Kongreso Esperantista; translation my own.)

In a sense, looking at everyone as a human, ignoring differences and focusing on similarities, sounds like a great idea. This premise is far from exclusive to the Esperanto movement, and defined many social justice movements in the 20th century. But unfortunately, it has not brought the justice it has promised. Inequality does not go away just because you ignore it. For example, if I associate with a group of abuse victims, and the group ignores LGBT issues because they’re a movement for abuse victims only, that doesn’t change the fact that when I apply for PTSD therapy or housing for battered women, my being transgender and bisexual can cause me to be discriminated against, and it has. Add the fact that I am neurodivergent and disabled, so my insurance options are limited, and the situation looks even worse. My issue is not that exactly that I’m LGBT, nor that I have PTSD, nor that I’m neurodivergent, nor that I’m disabled: it’s all of these things at the same time.

Last year I wrote a post, “How universal can a language be?”, which sparked a discussion of how an auxlang that was truly inclusive would be made. I think as a fundamental principle, any auxlang designed for the world we live in right now, rather than a future utopia, must acknowledge that there are differences between the ways people are treated by society, and that these differences often have a combined effect more severe than the sum of its parts. This means allowing for self-definition, allowing for the people who have experience with something to decide how to define themselves, instead of following the gospel of someone who lived over a century ago and didn’t even see the problem with saying that all humans should see each other as brothers.

The criticism often raised by traditionalist Esperanto speakers is, “Wouldn’t this make it devolve into dialects?” Such a belief stems from 19th-century attitudes about language, where dialects were seen as terrible and unfortunate things, as “impurities” arising from the one true language. The ideal auxlang, in my eyes, allows for dialects. What does it matter if different social groups speak differently, if they understand each other? Dialects are not a problem, but snobby and pretentious attitudes towards so-called “proper language use” definitely are. And anyone who is analytic about Esperanto would recognize that even “fundamenta Esperanto” already has quite a few dialects, reflecting different schools of Esperanto instruction as well as viewpoints on things like the 15th rule (neologisms) and pseudosuffixes (e.g. changing -kcio to -ado, when underlying roots didn’t previously exist).

The goal of any auxlang that strives to create a just world, should be to decenter the dominant culture, and to eliminate cultural dominance. Of course, it would be ridiculous to claim that a language could do this. Such a language must only be part of a broader movement, a means to the creation of a just world. And it must be considered replaceable whenever it proves to be unjust, or whenever people have become too rigid about it. The goal is not linguistic stability; the goal is justice. The goal is not to make people see each other as equals, but to make people equal.

Esperanto Book Archive on Áya Dan

Rachel Wil Sha Singh

homo kaj kosmo - esperanto revuo 2


A while ago, a bunch of old Esperanto books and magazines were donated to our local Esperanto group (Esperanto Kansas City).

These books go back as far as the 1930s, and right now they just sit in my apartment. I would like to archive them, so I will try to scan some of them over time.

You can view the first two entries on the Esperanto Book Archive page.

Anyone want to help me parse text files?

Rachel Wil Sha Singh


I think that it would be nice to build a dictionary that has translations between many conlangs and natlangs, for use as a single application.

And, let me know if this has already been done, because I don’t want to reinvent the wheel or anything.

I’ve set up a GitHub project here:
in hopes that I can get some help with this casual project.

Mainly, I’ve pulled dictionaries from around the ‘web, and they need to be parsed. Most of these dictionaries aren’t made with the idea of parsability in mind, only being read by a human. Scraping data from documents like these is always a pain, and I wouldn’t want to do it all solo.

Additionally, it’s always good to have another set of eyes looking over the design so that features that might be really important are added ahead of time, or a bad design is pointed out. I haven’t designed any databases in a while, but I’m hoping what I have makes some sense.

Finfine, after a dictionary has been compiled and made available to everybody as an CopyFree asset, it would be nice to also build some CopyFree dictionary utilities – for web, desktop, and mobile.


An Experiment in Conlang Gender Diversity

I set out in November to write a constructed language that celebrated gender diversity. Many conlangs skirt the issue of gender through the use of a single third-person pronoun, as is also seen in many natural languages. I wanted to do something a bit different.

Part of my inspiration for this was, in fact, Suzette Haden Elgin, who constructed Láadan out of a belief that women were “not superior to men (Matriarchy) or interchangeable with and equal to men (Androgyny) but rather entirely different from men.” I felt similarly about gender in conlangs: it is very easy to make everyone the same, but it misses the point of gender diversity.

Just as Elgin created a series of books about the construction of Láadan, I ended up creating a culture of people who spoke the language, a world they lived in, and various other cultures who lived alongside them. It’s still in progress, and the language is still “evolving” (being developed by me) in many ways. Some of the things that were true about the language at the beginning of December have been changed since then.

The contest Lexember was very helpful to me in developing it, although the gender system has been there from the very beginning and has barely changed aside from a few tweaks. You can read about the gender system on my conlanging Tumblr.

It has occurred to me, though, that the gender system of this fictional culture is still centered around the concept that binary gender is the norm (I wish I knew the word for this). You are either male, female, or “miscellaneous.” So as I keep developing this culture and its world, I will have to think of ways to break out of this in future cultures, worlds, langs, etc. This experiment will, hopefully, inspire better ones, either in me or in someone else.

Kreado de inkluziva lingvo

Rachel Wil Sha Singh

Read in EnglishLegu Esperante

Internacia planlingvointernacia helplingvo estas planlingvo konstruita por la uzo en ĝenerala internacia komunikado. Ofte oni ankaŭ uzas nur la vorton planlingvo kiel mallongigon de internaciaj planlingvoj.

de Wikipedia

Ne cxiom da planlingvoj estas internaciaj helplingvoj, nur iu – ekzemple, Ido kaj Esperanto. Tamen, cxu iu planlingvo povas esti kreita de unu viro aux unu malgranda komunumo, kaj ankaux estus inkluziva?

El afisxo de Becca, “How universal can a language be?“, sxi priparolas:

For queer people, learning any language can be a very invalidating experience.


Learning a constructed language can be even more invalidating. Constructed languages have been made with a particular goal in mind, and queer people soon discover that this goal did not involve them.


When thinking about the possibility of a queer language, it is hard to imagine constructing such a thing without invalidating someone. Any constructed language is very likely to push, consciously or unconsciously, the particular biases of the author.

Jen, problemo. Kaj mi pensas pri la problemo.  Kiel oni povus krei inkluzivan lingvon, por cxiuj? Kiaj problemoj cxeestos?

Laux mi, inkluziva lingvo devas esti…

1. Kreita de multaj personoj

Sola persono ne povas krei inkluzivan lingvon, por esti bonvena al cxiuj (kaj ne malbonvena al neniu).

El la afisxo de Becca:

For example, if a transmedicalist were to construct a language designed to be inclusive to trans people, the author would probably make sex equivalent to gender, erase the concept of being cis or trans altogether and strictly assert the gender binary. A person who does not believe in gender, on the other hand, may choose to erase any concept of gender from their language altogether. Yet to many trans people, either of these would be less inclusive and less validating than a Romance language

Laux mi, la nur maniero por krei lingvajn regulojn, kiujn la plejparto de personoj konsentas, kaj sentas sin reprezentata, estas por kunigxi. Necesas ke grupo de multaj personoj devas krei la lingvon – ne nur Euxruopanoj, ne nur malsamseksemuloj, ne nur viroj aux aliaj genruloj.

Ni bezonas cxiujn por krei la lingvon.

2. Fluema

Pri iuj planlingvoj, kiel Esperanto, la komunumo generale malsxatas sxangxojn. Laux ili, sxangxoj mortigus la lingvon, kaj Esperanto ne atingus la “finan venkon”.


Sed, por inkluziva lingvo, gxi devas esti sxangxebla. Ecx se diversa grupo originale kreus la lingvon, la unua grupo ne povas reprezenti cxiujn. Do, la lingvo bezonsa framon por sxangxi, kiam novaj personoj aldirus iliajn koncernojn.

3. Versiata

Certe, oni verkas multajn malnetojn kiam oni kreas planlingvon. Tamen, ni devas ne halti je versiono 1.0. Cxiu versiono devas esti uzata, kaj la uzantoj fajnigas gxin, kaj novaj versioj naskigxas, kun novaj vortoj, reguloj, ktp.

Tiu eble sxajnas kiel programlingvoj – ecx la maljuna C++ havas malsamojn inter v. 1998 kaj v. 2011. C++98 estas forta lingvo, kaj iuj uzas C++98 sole. Tamen, C++11 havas multajn modernajn trajtojn, kiujn personoj volas de modernaj lingvoj.

Eble homaj lingvoj devas esti simila.

Se vi rigardas Ithkuil, gxi havas versiojn — cxiuj “versio” havas signon de jaro: 2004, 2007, 2011. Mi mem ne konas la lingvon, sed se iu volas priparol Ithkuil kaj la komunumo de gxi, bonvolu komenti! :)

4. Modulema kaj etendebla

Eble sxajnas malfacilega por konstrui tian fluan lingvon! Eble iuj volas aspektajxojn de Láadan (pruvajxaj signoj), sed aliuloj volas aspektajxojn de Ido (inverseblaj de vortpartoj)? Vi devas elekti unu!

Ne vere. Kial ne havi cxion?

La lingvo ne devas sekvi unu paradigmon – ni devas konstrui gxin por esti pliampleksigebla, kaj ankaux esti modulema, do oni povas aldoni novajn ideojn, sendamagxo al la kerno de la lingvo.

Nu, ankoraux pensu pri programado (se vi konas). Cxiuj programlingvoj havas bibliotekojn de kodo. Por C++ bibliotekoj, la biblioteko estas verkita en la C++ lingvo, tamen gxi aldonas funkciaron al C++.

Nu, kiel ni atingus?

Kiel oni kunlaborus pri unu lingvo, por aldoni multajn elektojn kaj permesus evolui dum multaj jaroj? Kiel personoj, kiuj ne estas proksimaj, povus kunlabori? Kiel persono A kaj persono B povas aldoni iliajn proprajn trajtojn al la lingvo, kaj kunfandus la sxangxojn al la kerna lingvo? Kiel ni sekvas cxiom da la sxangxoj?


Ho, ve. Kia programa ido, cxu ne?

Multaj planlingvistoj jam estas programistoj, tamen mi ne intencas diri ke tia lingvo devas esti kreita de grupo de “diversaj programistoj” (eble vi jam scias ke, komputiko havas problemon pri diverseco), sed la iloj estas utilegaj.  Versikontroliloj estus bonegaj kaj utilegaj por tia projekto, kaj cxiaj personoj (ne nur programistoj) povas lerni la programojn, ankaux.

Mi deziras vidi la konstruadon de iu planlingvo cxe GitHub, aux Bitbucket, aux en deponejo, ie en la reto. Mi deziras trovi ilojn por uzi kaj konstrui kaj lerni la lingvon.

Tia projekto bezonus multajn tempojn kaj personojn, sed eble gxi estas eksperimento, kiu bezonas okazi iam.

Nu, Rachel, kiel ni interesigas aliulojn, por lerni la lingvon?

Vere, se vi volas instrui lingvon al multaj personoj, la lingvo bezonas ajxojn por fari. Eble babilado, sed ankaux amuzajxoj (filmoj, videoludoj, muzikoj, ktp), novajxoj, lernaj rimedioj, ktp.

Kiam oni verkas ajxojn por iu lingvo, oni kreas valoron por tiu lingvo.

Lernado de lingvo estas malfacila, kiam gxi ne havas iun, krom lecionoj kaj idealismo. Gxi bezonas propran mondon. Por kreskigi iun lingvon, ni bezonas krei.

Laux mi, evoluciema lingvo ne estas malbona afero, ecx al kreado de amuzajxoj. Hodiaux, ekzistas amuzajxojn el juna angla – personoj adaptas tiajn ajxojn al moderna angla. Per versikontroliloj, ni povas sekvi la sxangxojn (kaj rigardi la malnovajn versiojn) kaj facile gxisdatigi verkojn.

Kion vi opinias?

  • Cxu vi konas iujn planlingvojn, kiuj estis konstruita de grupo, kaj volas esti inkluziva?
  • Cxu vi konas iujn planlingvojn, kiuj estis konstruita en GitHub aux per Versikontrolo?
  • Cxu vi volus krei tian lingvon? Eble verki regulojn, aux uzi la lingvon, aux krei lecionojn, ktp?
  • Kiajn problemojn vi antauxvidas?

Diable \\\”á\\\”! (Kiel tajpi supersignajn literojn en Windows)

Rachel Wil Sha Singh

Malgranda konsileto – se vi volas tajpi “á” rapide en Windows, vi povas fari tiun ĉi:

  1. Premtenu la maldekstran ALT klavon.
  2. Ĉe la nombra klavaro, tajpu: 0, 2, 2, 5
  3. “á” ekmontras.

Vi povas tajpi specialajn literojn rapide per tiu ĉi maniero (tamen, vi bezonas enmemorigi la kodon).

Ekzistas aliajn manierojn por aldoni supersignojn. Eble ni priparolas ĝin pli poste.

Nuntempe, vi ankaŭ povas uzi mian supersignilo.

La aliaj kodoj estas:

  • á 0225
  • Á 0193
  • é 0233
  • É 0201
  • í 0237
  • Í 0205
  • ó 0243
  • Ó 0211
  • ú 0250
  • Ú 0218

Translation of “Night of the Living Dead”

Rachel Wil Sha Singh

There are some public domain films out there, which could potentially be translated and re-released, without any limits. 😉 I, personally, dislike Esperanto subtitles — really, I’d prefer Esperanto dubbing! So, why not translate and re-record voices (and sounds/music) for an old public domain film or television show?

Nokto de la Vivantaj Mortantoj

We need a lot of help if we’re going to translate the total film! The first task is translation, and afterwards we’ll need additional help, such as voice acting.


Are you interested? Could you help us with translating?

You will need a GitHub account (you don’t need to be a programmer, but you need an account!) — Tell me what your username is so I can add you to the project:

After you’re in the group, you can edit the script via the web-based text editor!