Láadan WikiBook

Raye Chell Mahela

I started a WikiBook on Láadan , and I will be working on it over time. But, if anyone else would like to contribute anything, it would be greatly appreciated!

All books on WikiBooks are under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, and this is important for a conlang like Láadan, where a some resource websites have already disappeared from the internet. By having a resource stored on WikiBooks, and by having a CC license for it, we help preserve the Láadan language for the future.

RPG Maker and Conlangs

Raye Chell Mahela

Sometimes, I’ll open up RPG Maker (one of the many iterations of ’em) and make myself an RPG, in some random conlang. Because let’s face it, there are pretty much no games in most conlangs.

These are mostly nonsensical, but maybe here to inspire someone reading to go pick up RPG Maker, or another game making tool – Game Maker, RenPy, or heck, even C++, and make some games. (Preferably with translations. 😉

These also may contain poor grammar, since I made ’em while learning. Plz forgive. :B


 

Esperanto

RPG Maker VX (PC) game – Trezoro de la Drako (2014)

RPG Maker 2 (PS2) game – La Hundo Perdita (2014)


 

Ido

RPG Maker VX (PC) game – La Drako de la Turmo (2014)


 

Láadan

RPG Maker 2003 (PC) game – Óowamid (2015)


 

Why learn Ido? – Sanzo84

Raye Chell Mahela

A late reply (by 4 months), so apologies in advance. I’m a native Indonesian speaker, but I learned English since I was around 3 and currently teaching English as a Second Language to teenagers and adults. I’m also proficient in French (B2 level) having lived in France for 6 years. When I visited my parents for the summer in Romania for around 4-5 months, I picked up the language quickly because it was also a Romance language. I was able to get around in broken Romanian after 2-3 months. I also picked up bits and pieces of other languages just for kicks: Japanese, German, Spanish, Russian, Dutch, even Irish Gaelic. None of which I studied seriously (that is, I never took formal language courses in these languages).

I’m learning Ido because I wanted to learn an International Auxiliary Language (IAL) out of curiosity. Like many others, I looked at Esperanto first but was turned off by the diacritics in the language. I learned them in French and Romanian, but sought a more simpler IAL. I was interested in Ido when I learned that it was based on early reforms in Esperanto. I took a look at Ido and was immediately hooked. I’ve been studying for less than a week, but I’m reading free PDFs of Progreso and Kuriero Internaciona as well as other books in Ido with little difficulty. It may be because of my grasp in two Romance languages, but I was thrilled to find out I could understand around 40% of text in Ido already!

I’m hoping to seriously learn this simple yet beautiful IAL and help spread the word here in Indonesia. I even started to text “Me amoras tu” to my girlfriend, hoping to convince her to study along with me.

— Sanzo84

View more reasons for “Why learn Ido?”

The Lord’s Prayer in multiple conlangs

Raye Chell Mahela

I don’t know why exactly this shows up as a sample translation for many languages (tradition from classic translation practices?), but it is. So let’s show the prayer in multiple conlangs, shall we?

See also, the Reddit thread in /r/Conlangs,
What is the Lord’s Prayer in your conlang?


English

Our Father in heaven,
hallowed be your name.
Your kingdom come,
your will be done,
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread,
and forgive us our debts,
as we also have forgiven our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil.

Esperanto

Patro nia, kiu estas en la ĉielo,
Via nomo estu sanktigita.
Venu Via regno,
plenumiĝu Via volo,
kiel en la ĉielo, tiel ankaŭ sur la tero.
Nian panon ĉiutagan donu al ni hodiaŭ.
Kaj pardonu al ni niajn ŝuldojn,
kiel ankaŭ ni pardonas al niaj ŝuldantoj.
Kaj ne konduku nin en tenton,
sed liberigu nin de la malbono.

Wikipedia, Comparison between Esperanto and Ido

Ido

Patro nia, qua esas en la cielo,
tua nomo santigesez;
tua regno advenez;
tua volo facesez
quale en la cielo, tale anke sur la tero.
Donez a ni cadie l’omnadiala pano,
e pardonez a ni nia ofensi,
quale anke ni pardonas a nia ofensanti,
e ne duktez ni aden la tento,
ma liberigez ni del malajo.

Wikipedia, Comparison between Esperanto and Ido

Interlingua

Patre nostre, qui es in le celos,
que tu nomine sia sanctificate;
que tu regno veni;
que tu voluntate sia facite
como in le celo, etiam super le terra.

Da nos hodie nostre pan quotidian,
e pardona a nos nostre debitas
como etiam nos los pardona a nostre debitores.
E non induce nos in tentation,
sed libera nos del mal.
Amen.

Wikipedia, Interlingua

Lojban

doi cevrirni .iu noi zvati le do cevzda do’u
fu’e .aicai .e’ecai lo do cmene ru’i censa
.i le do nobli turni be la ter. ku se cfari
.i loi do se djica ba snada mulno vi’e le cevzda .e .a’o la ter.
(.i do nobli turni vi’e le cevzda .ebazake .a’o la ter.)
(.i loi do se djica ba snada mulno vi’e le cevzda .e .a’o la ter.)
.i fu’e .e’o ko dunda ca le cabdei le ri nanba mi’a
.i ko fraxu mi loi ri zu’o palci
.ijo mi fraxu roda poi pacyzu’e xrani mi
.i ko lidne mi fa’anai loi pacyxlu
.i ko sepri’a mi loi palci
(.i .uicai ni’ike loi se turni .e loi vlipa .e loi mi’orselsi’a me le do romei)

Lojban.org

Láadan

Bi’ili,
Thul lenetha Na olimeha.
Wil he’eda zha Natha.
Wil nosha’ad sha Natha lenedi.
Wil sho’o yoth Natha,
Doniha zhe olimeha;
Wil ban Na bal lenethoth lenedi
I wil baneban Na lud lenethoth lenedi
Zhe mebane len luda’ lenethoth lenedi
I wil un ra Na lelneth erabal hedi
Izh wil bo’odan Na leneth rami’ilade
Bro’o sha, sha Natha
I hohathad, hohama Natha
I hohama, hohama Natha
Ril i aril i irilrili
Othe.

From A First Dictionary and Grammar of Láadan, Second Edition, by Suzette Haden Elgin

Toki Pona

Translation by Pijie/Jopi

mama pi mi mute o, sina lon sewi kon.
nimi sina li sewi.
ma sina o kama.
jan o pali e wile sina lon sewi kon en lon ma.
o pana e moku pi tenpo suno ni tawa mi mute.
o weka e pali ike mi. sama la mi weka e pali ike pi jan ante.
o lawa ala e mi tawa ike.
o lawa e mi tan ike.
tenpo ali la sina jo e ma e wawa e pona.
Amen.

Wikipedia, Toki Pona

Volapük

1930 de Jong Volapük

O Fat obas, kel binol in süls!
Nem olik pasalüdükonöd!
Regän ola kömonöd!
Vil olik jenonöd, äsä in sül, i su tal!
Givolös obes adelo bodi aldelik obsik!
E pardolös obes döbotis obsik,
äsä i obs pardobs utanes, kels edöbons kol obs.
E no blufodolös obis,
ab livükolös obis de bad!
(Ibä dutons lü ol regän, e nämäd e glor jü ün laidüp.)
So binosös!

Wikipedia, Volapük

Creating an inclusive auxlang

Raye Chell Mahela

Read in EnglishLegu Esperante

An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common first language. An auxiliary language is primarily a second language.

from Wikipedia

Not all conlangs are meant to be auxlangs, but some are – like Ido and Esperanto. However, can a language invented by one man or one small committee be inclusive?

Becca’s post, “How universal can a language be?“, mentions a few things:

For queer people, learning any language can be a very invalidating experience.

[…]

Learning a constructed language can be even more invalidating. Constructed languages have been made with a particular goal in mind, and queer people soon discover that this goal did not involve them.

[…]

When thinking about the possibility of a queer language, it is hard to imagine constructing such a thing without invalidating someone. Any constructed language is very likely to push, consciously or unconsciously, the particular biases of the author.

Which got me thinking about how could we achieve a language that includes as many people as possible. What are some of the challenges that would arise?

1. Be created by many

A single person cannot reasonably create a language that includes everybody and excludes no one. Again, from Becca’s article:

For example, if a transmedicalist were to construct a language designed to be inclusive to trans people, the author would probably make sex equivalent to gender, erase the concept of being cis or trans altogether and strictly assert the gender binary. A person who does not believe in gender, on the other hand, may choose to erase any concept of gender from their language altogether. Yet to many trans people, either of these would be less inclusive and less validating than a Romance language

I think that the only way to reasonably come to rules for the language that most people can agree to, and most people can feel represented by, is to have a group of people create the language. Not just Europeans, not just straight people, not just one gender or another. As many people as possible need to be able to give their input – whether or not they are linguists.

2. Be fluid

With certain conlangs, such as Esperanto, the community in general is very resistant to change, thinking that it might end up killing the language and defeat Esperanto’s goal of being spread to everybody as a second language.

But, in order for a language to be inclusive, it has to be open to changing – after all, even with a committee of people from various backgrounds working on a language together, somebody is bound to be left out. Therefore, the language would need to be open to change when people voice their concerns.

3. Be versioned

Of course conlangs go through various drafts, but I think that it is important to not just stop at v1.0. Each version needs to have people using it and refining it, with new features added for new versions.

That might sound like programming language development – even ol’ C++ has major differences between version 1998 and version 2011. 1998 is a solid language, and many people still use 1998 exclusively, but 2011 adds a lot of modern features that people have come to expect from modern languages.

Perhaps spoken languages should be similar.

If you look at Ithkuil, it is versioned as well — each “version” is marked by a year: 2004, 2007, 2011. I have not learned it myself, but if anyone out there has input on how the Ithkuil community deals with this, please let me know! :)

4. Be modular and extendible

It might seem daunting to build such a fluid language! What if some people want aspects of Láadan’s evidence markers, but want Ido’s reversibility when it comes to word building? You have to choose one focus!

No you don’t! Why not include everything?

The language shouldn’t be written into a corner so that it has to follow one paradigm, but should be built in such a way that it can be expanded upon with minimal pain for the core language itself.

Again, if you’re a programmer, think of libraries of code. Libraries for C++ are built with C++’s rules, but extend the functionality of the language – so, for example, your programs don’t have to just be console-based, white text on a black screen. (Though it’d be interesting to have namespaces in branches of the language, hmm…)


So how do we achieve this?

How could we possibly collaborate on an auxlang, bringing in many voices and allowing for evolution over time? How could we allow people to work on off-shoots of the language, and once refined, asked to be made part of the core language? How do we keep track of all of the changes made to the language over time?

Revision Control.

Ho, ve. That’s a little programmery, isn’t it? But a lot of conlangers I know are programmers.  That isn’t to say that the language should be built by a diverse group of programmers (everyone knows the field of CS has its diversity problems…), but revision control can be a really great tool for this sort of project, and non-programmers can learn to use it, too.

I would love to see a conlang develop on GitHub, or Bitbucket, or Sourceforge, or on its own server with its own website, and see tools develop to aid in teaching and using that language. It would take a lot of effort and a lot of time, but perhaps it’s an experiment that should happen at some point.

But Rachel, how do we get people to learn such an auxlang?

Honestly, if you want people to learn a language, there has to be stuff to do in that language. This can be chatting with others, but there is more to that. Perhaps if we are able to create films and animations and video games and news websites and everything else in such a language, we build value for the language.

It’s hard to learn a language specifically on ideals, and it’s very hard to learn a language that has virtually no resources out there but a few language lessons.

But creating content is something that is required for the language itself to grow and evolve. We would need to use it for our entertainment or daily lives, find out what is lacking, and build onto it.

I do not think that having an evolving language would hinder this too much. There is still entertainment from older versions of English that get adapted and are still shared today, and with revision control history (and, hopefully, branches for each new ‘version’), all of the historical data would be there to enable somebody to adapt their work to newer versions, or other works from older versions.

What do you think?

  • Do you know any conlangs built by a group, with the intent of being inclusive?
  • Do you know any conlangs that are being built on GitHub or with other open source methodologies?
  • Would you be interested in taking part in such a project, either by building out the core, testing the language by using it, or creating resources otherwise?
  • What downfalls do you foresee?

(One problem I foresee is that I’m writing this in English, and to get people from around the world contributing, we’d need resources in each language – at least to learn the core language, then communicate with that for language building.) :)

How universal can a language be?

For queer people, learning any language can be a very invalidating experience. Learning materials generally focus on the language that is standard, acceptable and “normal,” never on the language of non-binary or queer people. For example, a genderqueer French learner will have to do some extra research to find out about non-binary French pronouns such as iel, yel, ille, yol, and ol. It is likely that, until they are able to read the language, it will be difficult for them to even find information about such things. And using such pronouns prior to reaching complete fluency and eliminating their accent will make them vulnerable to even greater derision than non-binary native speakers.

Learning a constructed language can be even more invalidating. Constructed languages have been made with a particular goal in mind, and queer people soon discover that this goal did not involve them. As an example, Láadan is a language designed to express female thought, and a Láadan learner can expect to learn words for concepts such as “baby,” “pregnant” and “menstruate” from the very start. But perusing the dictionaries in the back of the First Dictionary and Grammar of Láadan, Second Edition, a student will find no words whatsoever for concepts like “transgender,” “transsexual” or “non-binary,” despite the fact that the first two concepts were well-known to feminists at the time of Láadan’s creation.

When thinking about the possibility of a queer language, it is hard to imagine constructing such a thing without invalidating someone. Any constructed language is very likely to push, consciously or unconsciously, the particular biases of the author. For example, if a transmedicalist were to construct a language designed to be inclusive to trans people, the author would probably make sex equivalent to gender, erase the concept of being cis or trans altogether and strictly assert the gender binary. A person who does not believe in gender, on the other hand, may choose to erase any concept of gender from their language altogether. Yet to many trans people, either of these would be less inclusive and less validating than a Romance language, whose queer native speakers have already found their own ways around the problem of binary gender.

As social agreements, languages suffer from the same fundamental problems that any social arrangement suffers, and constructed languages inherit these problems while introducing their own. We may have several answers to the ultimate question of the Universal Language, but it is also possible that we have never actually known what the question is.

Mandarin Chinese Class Review #2

Raye Chell Mahela

<< Mandarin Chinese Class Review #1

WoDeMao

I didn’t have a lot of time last week to study, so now it is time to review!


 Tonal Sandhi

  1. Cannot have two third-tones next to each other: The first one becomes second tone.
  2. With certain words, like bù and yì, before another fourth tone these change to second tone.

 

Family

Class was pretty fun tonight – we brought photos of our families to class and introduced them.

  • Mom: māma, Mother: mǔqīn
  • Dad: bàba, Father: fùqīn
  • Child/children: háizi
  • Son(s): érzi
  • Daughter(s): nǚér
  • Husband (formal): zhàng fū, Husband (informal): lǎogōng
  • Wife (formal): qī zǐ, Wife (informal): lǎopó
  • Older sister: jiějie
  • Younger sister: mèimei
  • Older brother: gēge
  • Younger brother: dìdi
  • Paternal Grandpa (formal): zǔfù, Paternal Grandpa (informal): yéye
  • Paternal Grandma (formal): zǔmǔ, Paternal Grandma (informal): nǎinai
  • Maternal Grandpa (formal): màizǔfù, Maternal Grandpa (informal): wàigōng
  • Maternal Grandma (formal): wài zǔmǔ, Maternal Grandma (informal): wàipó
  • Aunt (mother’s sister): āyí
  • Aunt (father’s sister): gūgu
  • Uncle (father’s younger brother): shūshu
  • Uncle (father’s older brother): bófù
  • Uncle (mother’s brother): jiùjiu

Numbers and Counting

  • 0: líng
  • 1: (yì when before a measure word)
  • 2: èr (with measure word: Liǎng)
  • 3: sān
  • 4:
  • 5:
  • 6: liù
  • 7:
  • 8:
  • 9: jiǔ
  • 10: shí

How many apples?
Jǐ gè píngguǒ?

One apple.
Yī gè píngguǒ. (Yī pronounced like yí here.)

I have one little sister.
Wǒ yǒu yī gè mèimei. (Yī pronounced like yí here.)


Occupations

  • Engineer: gōngchéngshī
  • Professor: jiàoshòu
  • Business person: shāngrén
  • Salesperson: tuīxiāoyuán
  • Doctor: yīshēng
  • Waiter, clerk, service person: fúwùyuán
  • Technician: jìshùyuán
  • Lawyer: lǜshī
  • Programmer: chéngxùyuán

Adjectives and Adverbs

  • Handsome: shuài
  • Ugly: chǒu
  • Cool:
  • Smart, intelligent: cōngmíng
  • Pretty, attractive: piàoliang
  • Good-looking: hǎokàn
  • Fat, stout: pàng
  • Thin: shòu
  • Nice, kind: shànliáng
  • Naughty, rambunctious: tiáopí
  • Tall: gāo
  • Short: ǎi
  • Small: xiǎo
  • Big:
  • Cute: kěài

Before an adjective, an adverb needs to be used:

  • Very: hěn
  • Extremely: fēicháng
  • Not too, not very: bútài

For example:

Is your cat cool?
Nǐ de māo kù ma?

My cat is cool.
Wǒ de māo hěn kù.

For small animals, the measure word is zhī.

I have one cat.
Wǒ yǒu yī zhī māo. (Pronounced like: Wó yǒu yì zhī māo.)

Do you have a pet?
Nǐ yǒu chǒngwù? (Pronounced like: Ní yóu chǒngwù? or Nǐ yóu chǒngwù?)