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Lesson 58: Repetition Morphemes

Vocabulary

bada

repeatedly, at random

badan

repeatedly, in a pattern over which humans have no control

brada

repeatedly, in a pattern fixed arbitrarily by human beings

bradan

repeatedly, in a pattern fixed by humans by analogy to some phenomenon (such as the seasons)

bradá

repeatedly, in what appears to be a pattern but cannot be demonstrated or proved to be one

There is no interrogative form, so we cannot ask “In what sort of pattern does this occur repeatedly?”

Additional Vocabulary

duthahoth

hospital [dutha (heal) + hoth (place)

loshebelid

bank [losh (money/credit) + belid (house)]

róomath

barn [róo (harvest) + math (building)]

ulin

school

wéehoth

library [wéedan (read) + hoth (place)]

Repetition Morphemes

The repetition [words] ordinarily go at the end of the clause [defined as: (Auxiliary) + Verb + (Negative) + Noun Phrase(s)] over which their scope extends; the Evidence [Word] will, of course, occur at the end of the sentence—after the repetition [word]. The repetition [words] include repetition in their intrinsic meaning; they do not require any assistance (such as the prefix “ne–” on the verb) in conveying this meaning.

Examples

Bíi ril sháad le bethedi wa.

I am going home.

Bíi ril sháad le bethedi bada wa.

I keep going home again and again (but with no particular pattern to my visits).


Bíi memina ash thosheha wa.

The stars move in the sky.

Bíi memina ash thosheha badan wa.

The stars move in the sky (every night, despite what humans may think or try to do about it).


Bíi dóhéthe le betheth wa.

I clean house.

Bíi dóhéthe le betheth brada wa.

I clean house regularly (eg weekly: arbitrary period set by humans).


Bíi yod le háasháaleya wa.

I eat in the morning.

Bíi yod le háasháaleya bradan wa.

I eat every morning (by analogy to pattern of nature).

Bíi yod le bradan wa.

I eat regularly (in a pattern by analogy to nature).


Bíi ham yul wa.

The wind blows.

Bíi ham yul bradá wa.

The wind blows again and again (in what seems to be a pattern, but cannot be demonstrated or proved to be one).

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1  

Bíi eril di ábedá wa, “Bíiya ham rohoro bada wa.”

2  

Bíi naya onin thul lethath bradan wáa.

3  

Bíi meshim romid wemeneya badan wáa.

4  

Báa dide omá bedihádi bada?

5  

Bíilan mehamedara lezh Yilesháaleya brada wa.

6  

Báa ozh withid bethethu bradá?

Something similar to #1 could have been rendered as Bíi eril diya ábedá wa, “Bíi ham rohoro bada wa.” This would have emphasized the speaker’s perception of the fear in the farmer’s utterance rather than the farmer’s own acknowledgement of speaking in fear.

Add the (indicated repetition word); translate into English before and after.

7  

Bíi eril sháad Másha ulinedi (arbitrary-by-human pattern) wa.

8  

Bíi ham nasháal i ash thosheha (natural pattern) wi.

9  

Bíi bóodan obeth letho rul nethoth yáanin bethode (no pattern) wa.

10  

Bíidu lothel le di wohowa wolali dedidethehé (unprovable pattern) wa.

11  

Báa mebenem with belideha nil náaleya (analogy-to-nature pattern)?

12  

Báa wéedan Mázhareth áabeth wéehotheha (arbitrary-by-human pattern)?

Translate the following into Láadan.

13  

The housekeeper cries from grief (reason/no blame/no remedy) off-and-on (no pattern).

14  

Storms go from west to east through the plain (apparent-but-unprovable pattern).

15  

The farmers will plant vegetables, and their spouses herbs (analogy-with-nature pattern).

16  

The child is obligated to go to sleep (arbitrary-by-human pattern).

17  

Birds fly south in autumn (natural pattern).

18  

The philosopher shows signs of joy (good reason) at learning (no pattern).

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Answers

1  

“[fearfully] There are storms repeatedly-in-no-pattern,” said the farmer.

2  

The nurse cares for my mother repeatedly (analogy-to-nature pattern).

3  

Wild animals copulate in spring-time (natural pattern).

4  

Does the teacher speak in narrative to students betimes (no pattern)?

5  

[celebratory] We dance repeatedly (arbitrary pattern) on Saturdays.

6  

Does the man dream of home sometimes (apparent-but-unprovable pattern)?

 

7  

Marsha went to the school.

Bíi eril sháad Másha ulinedi brada wa.

Marsha went to the school repeatedly (arbitrary-by-human pattern).

8  

The sun is rising, and there are stars in the sky.

Bíi ham nasháal i ash thosheha badan wi.

The sun rises, and there are stars in the sky regularly (natural pattern).

9  

My neighbor is rescuing your cat from her tree.

Bíi bóodan obeth letho rul nethoth yáanin bethode bada wa.

My neighbor rescues your cat from her tree every so often (no pattern).

10  

[poetically] I know that the warm rain tells stories.

Bíidu lothel le di wohowa wolali dedideth bradáhé wa.

[poetically] I know that the warm rain sometimes (apparent-but-unprovable pattern) tells stories.

11  

Are people staying inside houses at night?

Báa mebenem with belideha nil náaleya bradan?

Do people stay inside houses at nights (analogy-to-natural pattern)?

12  

Is Margaret reading a book at the library?

Báa wéedan Mázhareth áabeth wéehotheha brada?

Does Margaret read books at the library regularly (arbitrary-by-human pattern)?

 

13  

Bíi delishe elodá shamawáan bada wáa.

14  

Bíi mesháad rohoro honede henedi rabomu obe bradá wa.

15  

Bíi aril medala ábedá medath, i eba benetho thesheth, bradan wáa.

16  

Bíi dush naháana háawith brada wáa.

17  

Bíi meshumáad babí hanedi wemoneya badan wi.

18  

Bíi dam ehená thena bediwáan bada wáa.

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