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Lesson 44: Second Declension Nouns

Vocabulary

bala

anger

dala

frustration

shala

grief

zhala

regret

Addditional Vocabulary

doroledim

This word has no English equivalent whatsoever. Say you have an average woman. She has no control over her own life. She has little or nothing in the way of resources for being good to herself, even when it is necessary. She has family and animals and friends and associates that depend on her for sustenance of all kinds. She rarely has adequate sleep or rest; she has no time for herself, no space of her own, little or no money to buy things for herself, no opportunity to consider her own emotional needs. She is at the beck and call of others because she has these responsibilities and obligations and does not choose to (or cannot) abandon them. For such a woman, the one and only thing she is likely to have a little control over for indulging her own self is food. When such a woman overeats, the verb for that is “doroledim.” (And then she feels guilty because there are women whose children are starving and who do not have even that option for self-indulgence‚Ķ.)

ib

crime

lash

indifference

leb

enemy

modi

to be ugly

rasha

discord (not discord in the home) [ra– (non–) + sha (harmony)]

Second Declension Nouns

Just as in the first declension, there are five forms in this declension, of which those presented in the Vocabulary section are the most general. However, these five forms cover a lot more emotional “territory” than the first declension does. In addition to reason, the second declension speaks about blame and remedy. The details are most easily presented in a grid:

Reason

Blame

Remedy

Declension

+

+

+

–ala

+

+

–ara

+

+

–ana

+

–ama

+

–ina

Reason asks the question about the emotion, “Is there a reason that I’m feeling this way?” Blame asks, “Is there someone to blame for the situation that has me feeling this way?” Remedy asks, “Can something be done about the situation?”

Examples

Bíi loláad le shama wa.listen to this pronounced

I feel grief which is for good reason, for which I can blame no one and about which I can do nothing.

Bíi eril loláad be dina wa.listen to this pronounced

She felt frustration for which there was no reason, so of course she could not blame anyone, but she could do something about the situation.

Báa aril loláad ne bara ledi widahath nasháad le?listen to this pronounced

Will you be angry (reason, blame, no remedy) with me when I leave?

Ra, aril loláad le zhama núuya wa.listen to this pronounced

No, I shall feel regret (reason, no blame, no remedy) then.

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1  

Bíi eril loláad ebalá bana baledi wa.listen to this pronounced

2  

Báa loláad amedarahá shara olob bethiwáan?listen to this pronounced

3  

Bíi dam ra bedihá dama omádi lamiwáan menedebe wo.listen to this pronounced

4  

Bíi ril dam Bétheni bara bróo il ra huhid them withethoth menedebe wa.listen to this pronounced

5  

Bíi eril ada ehá shamanal wáa.listen to this pronounced

6  

Báa aril meyod onida anadal zhananal?listen to this pronounced

Change the emotion and its attributes to those presented; translate into English before and after.

7  

Bíi ril loláad odá zhala modi odethuwáan wáa.listen to this pronounced

frustration (reason/blame/no remedy)

8  

Báa eril loláad babí bala bróo sháad rul beth bethodi nil?listen to this pronounced

what?

9  

Bíi dam Ánetheni bina worabun wobédiwáan wa.listen to this pronounced

frustration (reason/blame/remedy)

10  

Báa eril medam obeth bama nedi minawáan?listen to this pronounced

regret (reason/no blame/no remedy)

11  

Bíi aril mebenem imá heshehotheha shamawáan wáa.listen to this pronounced

regret (reason/no blame/remedy)

12  

Báa eril di with lezhedi zhinanal?listen to this pronounced

frustration (no reason/no blame/remedy)

Translate the following into Láadan.

13  

A father will give the appearance of anger (reason/no blame/no remedy) when his child dies of (due to) an illness, obviously.

14  

Are the farmers feeling grief (reason/no blame/remedy) or grief (reason/blame/remedy) because plants on their farms are failing to thrive?

15  

The philosopher is not showing signs of frustration (reason/no blame/no remedy), even though no one pays attention to her.

16  

Of what is the baby showing signs?

17  

The man was crying from grief (no reason/no blame/remedy); I tried in vain to learn how I might comfort him.

18  

My friend signed frustratedly (reason/no blame/remedy); the odd picture was obscure.

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Answers

1  

The baker was angry (reason/no blame/remedy) at the bread.

2  

Is the dancer grieving (reason/blame/no remedy) because of her (by chance) injury?

3  

The student doesn’t show signs of frustration (reason/no blame/no remedy) because of the many numbers to the teacher.

4  

Bethany is showing signs of anger (reason, blame, no remedy) because the king pays no attention to the many needs of the people.

5  

The scientist laughed sorrowfully (reason/no blame/no remedy).

6  

Will the family eat the meal regretfully (reason/no blame/remedy)?

 

7  

The weaver feels regret (reason/blame/remedy) at (because of) the ugliness of the cloth.

Bíi ril loláad odá dara modi odethuwáan wáa.listen to this pronounced

The weaver is frustrated (reason/blame/no remedy) at the ugliness of the cloth.

8  

Was the bird angry (reason/blame/remedy) because the cat came into her home?

Báa eril loláad babí bebáath bróo sháad rul beth bethodi nil?listen to this pronounced

What did the bird feel because the cat came into her home?

9  

Anthony is showing signs of anger (no reason/no blame/remedy) because of an old promise.

Bíi dam Ánetheni dala worabun wobédiwáan wa.listen to this pronounced

Anthony is showing signs of frustration (reason/blame/remedy) because of an old promise.

10  

Did the neighbors manifest anger (reason/no blame/no remedy) toward you for (because of) moving?

Báa eril medam obeth zhama nedi minawáan?listen to this pronounced

Did the neighbors manifest regret (reason/no blame/no remedy) toward you for (because of) moving?

11  

The travelers will stay in the park because of grief (reason/no blame/no remedy).

Bíi aril mebenem imá heshehotheha zhanawáan wáa.listen to this pronounced

The travelers will stay in the park because of regret (reason/no blame/remedy).

12  

Did the woman speak regretfully (no reason/no blame/remedy) to us (few)?

Báa eril di with lezhedi dinanal?listen to this pronounced

Did the woman speak frustratedly (no reason/no blame/remedy) to us (few)?

 

13  

Bíi aril dam thulid bama widahath shebasheb háawith behidetha éeyawáan wi.listen to this pronounced

14  

Báa meloláad ábedá e shana e shala bróo medúutháa dala ábed bezhethoha?listen to this pronounced

15  

Bíi dam ra ehená dama, íizha il rawith beth wa.listen to this pronounced

16  

Báa dam áwith bebáath?listen to this pronounced

17  

Bíi eril delishe withid shinawáan; dúubedi le rilrili she le behideth bebáanalehée wa.listen to this pronounced

18  

Bíi eril lishid lan letho dananal; rawedeth wobú wodadem wa.listen to this pronounced

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