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Lesson 35: Purpose Case

Vocabulary

áhesh

to be responsible

–d

Suffix (Speech Act Morpheme): said in anger

dama

to touch

edethi

to share

ilisháad

to swim [ili (water) + sháad (to go/come)]

lishid

to sign (to use sign language)

shumáad

to fly [shum (air) + sháad (to go/come)]

thod

to write

ub

balm

–wan

Suffix (noun): Purpose Case

In addition to Speech Act Morphemes, the Speech Act Suffixes can be attached to several verbs that involve communicating. Among the verbs that will accept these suffixes are: “di” (to speak; to say; to talk), “lishid” (to sign), “dama” (to touch). So within a sentence said, for instance, in teaching (one that begins with Bíidi), one can independently indicate that someone spoke, signed or touched in a variety of ways (for example, in love or celebration or jest) by adding one of these suffixes directly to the verb.

Purpose Case

[(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP–S CP–Purpose]

The ending used to mark a Case Phrase as the Purpose for what is in the statement. The Purpose Case ending is “–wan,” which means “in order to, for the purpose of.”

The difference between the Cause Case and the Purpose Case may seem a bit abstruse. In English we answer the question “Why...?” either with a Cause or with a Purpose—the nature of the reply is left entirely up to the answerer. As an example, if I were asked why I’m going home, I’m free to answer, “Because I’m hungry,” (Cause) or, “So I can eat,” (Purpose); both answers are germane to a “why” question.

Láadan places the burden on the questioner. The words “bebáawáan” (Cause) and “bebáawan” (Purpose) are not so ambiguous as the English “why.” Once the question is asked, the respondent may answer the question or not—indeed, she may answer the other question if she wishes. However, it will be evident that the question has been “ducked.”

Examples

Bíi sháad le bethedi yodewan wa.listen to this pronounced

I’m going home (in order) to eat.

Báa sháad be bethedi áanawan?listen to this pronounced

Is she going home (in order) to sleep?

Báa sháad ne bethedi bebáawan?listen to this pronounced

Why (for what purpose) are you going home?

The Purpose Case is the last Case we will study. You may still be uncomfortable with the idea of Case. If so, perhaps a brief summary of what Case is might be helpful. Case is nothing more nor less than the relation of a noun phrase to the verb—and sometimes to the Subject. The following summary will illustrate and, I hope, clarify:

Subject

who/what does the VERB

Object

whom/what the VERB is done to

Identifier

no VERB; identifies the Subject as something

Source

where the VERB is done from

Goal

where the VERB is done toward

Path

what the VERB is done through, over, under, etc.

Instrument

what the Subject uses in doing the VERB

Associate

who/what accompanies the Subject in doing the VERB

Place

where the VERB is done

Time

when the VERB is done

Manner

how the VERB is done

Beneficiary

for whom/what the VERB is done

Cause

because of what the VERB is done

Purpose

purpose for which the VERB is done

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1  

Bíi ulanin háawith thodewan wáa.listen to this pronounced

2  

Bíi aril thel Elízhabeth anath edethiwan we.listen to this pronounced

3  

Bíi eril di shoná wáa, “Bóo mewam nezh lohilewan.”listen to this pronounced

4  

Bíi eril ban be ilith lan lethodi shalewan wa.listen to this pronounced

5  

Bíi aril mebithim Ánetheni i Másha melaha ilisháadewan wo.listen to this pronounced

6  

Báa eril bel odá losheth henedi bebáawan?listen to this pronounced

Note the word in Purpose case in #1. “Thodewan” means “for the purpose of writing.” If we simply add “dale” (object; made thing) to “thodewan,” the result would be “dalethodewan” which literally translates to “object for the purpose of writing” and means “writing implement.” There is an abbreviated, “familiar” form, “thodi,” that means the same thing.

Incorporate the second noun as a Purpose; translate into English before and after.

7  

Bíi memime ehená wi.listen to this pronounced

bedi

8  

Bíi ma halá diháth wáa.listen to this pronounced

lishid

9  

Bóo di ne dáan debe.listen to this pronounced

dom

10  

Bíi eril mesháad ábedá heshehothedi elahelaya aril wa.listen to this pronounced

amedara

11  

Báa lámála Hérel ruleth?listen to this pronounced

ra

12  

Báa ril wéedan bedihá áabeth?listen to this pronounced

bebáa

Of course you had no problem understanding the Object in #8. Just in case: “di” (to say; to speak; to talk) + “–á” (doer) gives “dihá” (speaker; one who speaks).

Did you notice, in #11, that we added “ra” as a Purpose to form the second sentence? As you might expect, “rawan” means “for no purpose.”

Translate the following into Láadan.

13  

The woman traveled alone (in order) to think.

14  

Suppose the man does the work slowly in order to be responsible.

15  

I shall carry the container to the road in order to help (a promise).

16  

Some ones (many) stay here in order to laugh.

17  

Do birds eat insects in order to continue to thrive?

18  

Why (for what purpose) did the linguist create the language?

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Answers

1  

The child studies in order to write.

2  

Elizabeth will get food to share (I dreamed).

3  

The peacemaker said, “Prithee be still in order to pay attention internally.”

4  

She gave water to my friend for the purpose of courtesy.

5  

Anthony and Marsha will meet at the ocean (in order) to swim (I guess).

6  

Why (for what purpose) did the weaver take/bring the money to the east?

 

7  

Philosophers ask (obviously).

Bíi memime ehená bediwan wa.listen to this pronounced

Philosophers ask in order to learn (obviously).

8  

The worker listens to the speaker.

Bíi ma halá diháth lishidewan wáa.listen to this pronounced

The worker listens to the speaker in order to sign.

9  

Prithee say the 100 words.

Bóo di ne dáan debe domewan.listen to this pronounced

Prithee say the 100 words in order to remember.

10  

The farmers came to the park after the celebration.

Bíi eril mesháad ábedá heshehothedi amedarawan elahelaya aril wa.listen to this pronounced

The farmers came to the park to dance after the celebration.

11  

Is Carol petting the cat?

Báa lámála Hérel ruleth rawan?listen to this pronounced

Is Carol petting the cat for no purpose?

12  

Is the student reading the book?

Báa ril wéedan bedihá áabeth bebáawan?listen to this pronounced

Why (for what purpose) is the student reading the book?

 

13  

Bíi eril im with sholanenal lithewan wáa.listen to this pronounced

14  

Bíi rilrili shub withid haleth lóolonal áheshewan wa.listen to this pronounced

15  

Bé aril wida le dimeth wethedi denewan wa.listen to this pronounced

16  

Bíi mebenem beyen nuha adawan wáa.listen to this pronounced

17  

Báa meyod babí zhubeth nátháawan?listen to this pronounced

18  

Báa eril el edaná daneth bebáawan?listen to this pronounced

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