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Lesson 32: Beneficiary Case

Vocabulary

–da

Suffix (noun): Beneficiary Case, voluntarily (neutral)

–dá

Suffix (noun): Beneficiary Case, under force or coercion

–daá

Suffix (noun): Beneficiary Case, accidentally

–dáa

Suffix (noun): Beneficiary Case, not under force or coercion, but accepting obligation under law or duty

eba

spouse

hoberídan

great-aunt

idon

hairbrush

od

cloth

owe

garment

thol

breast

You may be wondering what the verb form of “eba” (spouse) might be. It probably won’t surprise you to find that it means “to marry.” Unlike in English, however, in which one person marries another (grammatically, a Subject marries an Object), in Láadan the verb “eba” requires two Subjects; two persons marry (or “spouse”) together.

Beneficiary Case

[(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP–S CP–Beneficiary]

To mark a Case Phrase as a Beneficiary (that for whom, or on whose behalf, something is done), add the ending “–da.”

The Beneficiary marker given above is the one used when something is done voluntarily. There are three alternative forms. If none of the others applies, use “–da.”

Examples

Bíi eril alehale le wa.listen to this pronounced

I musicked.

Bíi eril alehale le weheháda wa.listen to this pronounced

I musicked for the storekeeper.

Bíi eril alehale le hoberídan lethoda wa.listen to this pronounced

I musicked for my great-aunt.

 

Bíi hal le wa.listen to this pronounced

I work.

Bíi hal le héena lethoda wa.listen to this pronounced

I work for my heart-sibling (because I want to).

Bíi hal le shonedáa wa.listen to this pronounced

I work for peace (because I’m an honorable person and I feel myself duty-bound).

Bíi hal le withedaá hi wa.listen to this pronounced

I work for this woman (it just happened that way).

Bíi hal le ábedáhidedá wa.listen to this pronounced

I work for the farmer (so his friends won’t break my legs).

 

Bí nosháad le didenal wa.listen to this pronounced

I shall arrive early.

Bí nosháad le didenal shada wa.listen to this pronounced

I shall arrive early for harmony’s sake.

Bí nosháad ra le didenal shada wa.listen to this pronounced

I shall not arrive early for harmony’s sake.

Bí nosháad le didenal rada wa.listen to this pronounced

I shall arrive early for nothing’s sake.

Bí nosháad le didenal sha rada wa.listen to this pronounced

I shall arrive early in spite of harmony.

In the above set of examples, the second sentence specifies that the speaker will arrive “for the benefit of” harmony. The third sentence is somewhat ambiguous: will the speaker refrain from arriving early “in the interest of harmony,” or will she arrive early but not in order to promote harmony? The fourth sentence, using “ra” (not) in place of a noun in Benefit Case, is also ambiguous: will she arrive early but not to promote anything in particular, or will she not arrive early no matter who or what might benefit? In the fifth sentence we have a new grammatical structure. The case ending, –da, is split off from its noun and affixed to the word “ra” (not) which follows the noun. This doesn’t just nullify the case function (that is, it doesn’t just express the Subject’s lack of interest in the interests of the beneficiary); rather, it reverses the case function (that is, it states explicitly that the Subject is opposed to the interests of the would-be beneficiary). I translated it here as “in spite of;” it might just as well be translated “against,” “opposed to,” “contrary to X’s interests,” or a host of other English phrases.

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1  

Báa mime ne bebáadáa?listen to this pronounced

2  

Bíi mehéeya ben yom abeshethuda waá.listen to this pronounced

3  

Báa hizh owe tholeda?listen to this pronounced

4  

Bíi néde hoberídan lezhetha idoneth delith bethada i worado wohoma bethadaá wa.listen to this pronounced

5  

Bíi aril thel Ánetheni edeth omideda háasháaleya wa.listen to this pronounced

6  

Bíi eril them nasháad rul núude bishibenal náwíidá wáa.listen to this pronounced

Notice the word “rado” (relativized in “worado” in #4); it is formed from “ra–” (not; non–) + “do” (to be strong) and means, predictably, “to be weak.”

Incorporate the second noun as a Beneficiary (of the kind specified); translate into English before and after.

7  

Bíi eril el odá wodazh wohod wa.listen to this pronounced

wehe (obligation)

8  

Bíi aril yod ra with anath wáa.listen to this pronounced

háawith betha

9  

Bíi eríli di omá wáa.listen to this pronounced

mid woho

10  

Báa bédi ham dená?listen to this pronounced

ehená (coercion)

11  

Bíi ril naya beye áwitheth wa.listen to this pronounced

thul (accident)

12  

Báa eril ban ebalá baleth haládi?listen to this pronounced

bebáa

Did you notice the word “odá” in #7? It’s formed from “od” (cloth) + “–á” (doer) and means “weaver.”

Translate the following into Láadan.

13  

The farmer sold the house to my friend for the physician.

14  

The peacemaker pays attention (internally) to joy in the interests of harmony.

15  

Is the alien amazed because the weary storekeeper lay down under the window for (accidentally) the baby bird?

16  

I moved hither from the east for (obligation) my spouse’s work.

17  

The traveler is alone a whole lot in the interests of learning.

18  

For whom/what (coerced) are many people (someones, many) going to the west by boat?

Did you note the word “physician” in #13? “Medicine” would be the “science of healing” or “edutha.” A “physician” would be a practitioner of this science: “eduthahá.”

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Answers

1  

On whose behalf (obligation) are you asking?

2  

They fear for (on behalf of) the safety of all-that-is (I doubt it).

3  

Are these (few) garments for the breast?

4  

Our great-aunt wants a hairbrush for (her) hair and (accidentally) for her weak hand.

5  

Anthony will obtain grain for the horse in the morning.

6  

The cat needed to depart from there suddenly in the interests (coerced) of survival (of continuing to be alive).

 

7  

The weaver made soft cloth.

Bíi eril el odá wodazh wohod wehedáa wa.listen to this pronounced

The weaver made soft cloth for (obligation) the store.

8  

The woman will not eat the food.

Bíi aril yod ra with anath háawith bethada wáa.listen to this pronounced

The woman will not eat the food for her child.

9  

Long ago the teacher spoke.

Bíi eríli di omá mideda woho wáa.listen to this pronounced

Long ago the teacher spoke on behalf of all creatures.

10  

Does the assistant promise to attend?

Bíi bédi ham dená ehenádá?listen to this pronounced

Does the assistant promise to attend on behalf (due to coercion) of the philosopher?

11  

Someone is caring for the baby.

Bíi ril naya beye áwitheth thuledaá wa.listen to this pronounced

Someone is caring for the baby on behalf (accidentally) of the parent.

12  

Did the baker give bread to the worker?

Báa eril ban ebalá bal haládi bebáada?listen to this pronounced

On whose behalf did the baker give bread to the worker?

 

13  

Bíi eril eb ábedá belid lan lethodi eduthaháda wa.listen to this pronounced

14  

Bíi lohil shoná thenath shada wáa.listen to this pronounced

15  

Báa míi néehá bróo eril rúu wohóoha wowehehá demeha yil ábabídaá?listen to this pronounced

16  

Bíi eril mina le henede nudi hal ebatho lethodáa wa.listen to this pronounced

17  

Bíi sholanehul imá bedida wáa.listen to this pronounced

18  

Báa mesháad beyen honedi eshenan bebáadá?listen to this pronounced

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