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Lesson 26: Associate Case

Vocabulary

bedi

to learn

Bée

Speech Act Morpheme: Warning

–dan

Suffix (noun): Associate Case—with pleasure

–den

Suffix (noun): Associate Case—neutral

habelid

to dwell

–hil

Degree Marker: to a minor degree; rather; somewhat

–li

Suffix (Speech Act Morpheme): said in love

lo

to rejoice

ne–

Prefix (verb): repeat VERBing; VERB again

on

head (body part)

Note the Degree Marker “–hil.” It denotes a less-than-neutral degree, but not so much less as “–hel” does.

Note the new Mood Suffix “–li.” It conveys the meaning “said in love” to a Type-of-Sentence Word—whether a statement, a question, a warning, or whatever.

Associate Case

[(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP–S CP–Associate]

To mark a Case Phrase as an Associate (with whom something is done, as in English “I danced with her.”), add the ending “–den.” If you want to indicate that there is pleasure in the association, you may use the alternative Associate marker “–dan;” “–den” is a neutral form.

Note that, though the English translation may seem similar (both can be termed “with”), the Associate Case is distinct from the Instrument Case. One uses an Instrument (as in “I eat with a fork” “Bíi yod le bathanan wa”listen to this pronounced); one is accompanied by an Associate (as in “I eat with a friend” “Bíi yod le laneden wa”listen to this pronounced).

Examples

Bíi im be ilidi wa.listen to this pronounced

She travels to the water.

Bíi nehim be ilidi wa.listen to this pronounced

She travels to the water again.

Báa im be ilidi bebáaden?listen to this pronounced

With whom/what does she travel to the water?

Bíi im be ilidi ruleden wa.listen to this pronounced

She travels to the water with a cat.

 

Bíi bedi be Láadan wáa.listen to this pronounced

She’s learning Láadan.

Báa bedi be Láadan bebáaden?listen to this pronounced

With whom is she learning Láadan?

Bíi bedi be Láadan edin bethadan wáa.listen to this pronounced

She’s learning Láadan with her cousin (pleasurably).

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1  

Bíi eril di wehehá losháden; ril them be losheth wáa.listen to this pronounced

2  

Báa mehel berídan netha esheth omáden?listen to this pronounced

3  

Bíi habelid duthahá héena lethodan i mid bezhethoden menedebe wa.listen to this pronounced

4  

Bíi mehil ehashá i shoná wohaba wohanath óoyonan wothádan wáa.listen to this pronounced

5  

Báa menéde mehim hóowith Másha betha bodi mazhenan bebáaden?listen to this pronounced

6  

Bíi nédeshub hal ebalá lan bethoden nedebe wa.listen to this pronounced

In #4, were you able to divine the meaning of “wothá?” From “woth” (wisdom) and “–á” (doer), it means “wise person” or “sage” (not the herb).

Incorporate the second noun as an Associate; translate into English before and after.

A “*” in the second column indicates there is pleasure in the association.

7  

Bíi aril mehal Thíben i Shuzhéth wa.listen to this pronounced

*womíi wohehená

8  

Bíi eril nosháad rul bethedi wáa.listen to this pronounced

árul bim

9  

Báa eríli memina onida woho nudi melade?listen to this pronounced

bebáa

10  

Bíi ril dathim hothul letha thometh wa.listen to this pronounced

*edin letha

11  

Báa eril yod wobalin wohábedá bathanan?listen to this pronounced

sherídanid betha

12  

Bíi aríli melo ben bróo ril methad mesháad lezh olinedi wáa.listen to this pronounced

nen

In #7, were you able to decipher the meaning of “ehená?” The root of the word is “en” (to understand). Add the prefix “e–” (science of) to form “ehen” (philosophy: the science of understanding). Then add the suffix “–á” (doer) to form “ehená” (philosopher).

Were you able to define the word “árul” in #8? It’s composed of “á–” (infant) + “rul” (cat) and means “infant kitten.” And how about “nosháad?” Composed of “no–” (to finish) + “sháad” (to come/go), it means “to arrive.”

Notice in #9 that, even though we have a verb that carries the plural, we can still specify the number (or “several,” “many,” or even “all”) by placing a quantifier after the Case Phrase.

Translate the following into Láadan.

13  

They played extremely hard; now the children are sleeping with their cat (said in love).

14  

The moon can be present with the sun or with the many stars.

15  

With whom did the traveler sex-act (with pleasure)?

16  

My birth-sibling comes to my garden with her horse because the grass is good.

17  

The pregnant woman is learning philosophy with an alien peace-scientist.

18  

The air dances with the earth and the river; it is the wind.

Did finding a word for “played hard” in #13 give you any difficulty? Of course, “to play” is “elash,” but how can we show that their play was more intense than usual? How about a Degree Marker? I’d use “elashehul” [elash (to play) + –hul (extreme degree)].

Of course you had no problem creating the word for “traveler” in #15: “imá” from “im” (to travel) + “–á” (doer).

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Answers

1  

The storekeeper spoke with a banker; she needs credit (I’ve heard).

2  

Are your aunts making the boat with a teacher?

3  

The healer dwells with my heart-sibling (pleasurably) and with their many animals.

4  

An astronomer and a peacemaker taste the fragrant food with the sage (pleasurably).

5  

With whom do Marsha’s grandchildren want to travel to the mountain in (using) the car?

6  

The baker intends to work with several of her friends.

 

7  

Steven and Suzette will work.

Bíi aril mehal Thíben i Shuzhéth womíi wohehenádan wa.listen to this pronounced

Steven and Suzette will work with the amazed philosopher (with pleasure).

8  

The cat arrived (finished coming) home.

Bíi eril nosháad rul bethedi áruleden bim wáa.listen to this pronounced

The cat arrived home with four kittens.

9  

Did all the families move hither from the ocean long ago?

Báa eríli memina onida woho nudi melade bebáaden?listen to this pronounced

With whom/what did all the people move hither from the ocean, long ago?

10  

My grandmother needleworks a pillow.

Bíi ril dathim hothul letha thometh edin lethadan wa.listen to this pronounced

My grandmother needleworks a pillow with my cousin (with pleasure).

11  

Did the old farmer eat with (using) a fork?

Báa eril yod wobalin wohábedá bathanan sherídanid bethaden?listen to this pronounced

Did the old farmer eat with (using) a fork with her nephew?

12  

Far in the future, they (many) will rejoice because we (few) are able to go to the forest.

Bíi aríli melo ben bróo ril methad mesháad lezh olinedi neneden wáa.listen to this pronounced

Far in the future, they (many) will rejoice because we (few) are able to go to the forest with you (many).

 

13  

Bíili eril mehelashehul bezh, ril meháana háawith rul bezhethoden wa.listen to this pronounced

14  

Bíi thad ham óol e rosheden e asheden menedebe wa.listen to this pronounced

15  

Báa eril shim imá bebáadan?listen to this pronounced

16  

Bíi sháad hena letha déela lethodi omid bethoden bróo thal hesh wáa.listen to this pronounced

17  

Bíi bedi wolawida wowith eheneth wonée woheshonáden wa.listen to this pronounced

18  

Bíi amedara shum doniden i wiliden; be yul wa.listen to this pronounced

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