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Lesson 22: Path Case

Vocabulary

ihé

in front of; before

ihée

in back of; behind; beyond

mesh

across

–mu

Suffix (CP): Path case

nil

in; inside; within

nol

atop; on top of

o

around

obe

through

óobe

along

yil

below; under

Path Case

[(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP–S (CP–Source) (CP–Goal) CP–Path (Postposition)]

The Path Case describes the route the Subject takes to get from the Source to the Goal—although the Source and Goal need not be explicitly mentioned.

The Path Case phrase is usually followed by a word describing the relation of the route to the noun phrase involved. These words, called postpositions, are like English prepositions except that they follow, rather than precede, the case phrase. The Path Case element will sometimes occur without a postposition; in such a situation it would be translated “by way of” or something similar.

Postpositions’ forms are invariable; they take no affixes. They will also form the bulk of our vocabulary in this lesson.

Examples

Bíi rilrili mesháad háawith déeladi wáa.listen to this pronounced

The children may come/go to the garden.

Bíi rilrili mesháad háawith déeladi heshehothemu obe wáa.listen to this pronounced

The children may come/go to the garden through the park.

Bíi rilrili mesháad háawith déeladi belid nethomu obe wáa.listen to this pronounced

The children may come/go to the garden through your house.

 

Bíi eril doth le ruleth wa.listen to this pronounced

I followed the cat.

Bíi eril doth le ruleth wethemu óobe wa.listen to this pronounced

I followed the cat along the road.

Bíi eril doth le ruleth beth lethode wa.listen to this pronounced

I followed the cat from my home.

Bíi eril doth le ruleth beth lethode wethemu óobe wa.listen to this pronounced

I followed the cat from my home along the road.

Bíi eril doth le ruleth beth lethode olinedim wethemu óobe wa.listen to this pronounced

I followed the cat from my home to the forest along the road.

Bíi eril doth le ruleth beth lethode olinedim wethemu wa.listen to this pronounced

I followed the cat from my home to the forest by way of the road.

 

Báa eril wida be anath nudi?listen to this pronounced

Did she carry the food hither?

Báa eril wida be anath dememu ihé?listen to this pronounced

Did she carry the food in front of the window?

Báa eril wida be anath nudi bebáamu?listen to this pronounced

How (by what route) did she carry the food hither?

Exercises

Translate the following into English.

1  

Bíi eril amedara Therísha beth bethode wohóya woheshehothedi wethemu óobe wáa.listen to this pronounced

2  

Báa bel thul netha dizheth wehede bebáamu?listen to this pronounced

3  

Bóo medoth nezh woshane womideth wilimu mesh.listen to this pronounced

4  

Bíi nédeshub im Mázhareth woratháa wohothemu o wi.listen to this pronounced

5  

Bíi eril dumina dená losheth renemu nol wa.listen to this pronounced

6  

Bíi aril mehoób Máthu i Thíben worahíyahul wohudemu rayil wa.listen to this pronounced

Note the word “ratháa” in #4. “Tháa” means “to thrive,” so “ratháa” would be its opposite; I’ve translated it as “be blighted,” but it could as easily be translated “be withered” or any number of other common English terms.

Note the word “rayil” in #6. It comes, of course, from “ra–” (non–) + “yil” (below) and means “over; above.” This meaning is distinct from “nol” which means “upon; on top of.”

Incorporate the noun or phrase in the second column as a Path with the posposition from the third column; translate into English before and after.

7  

Bíide eríli mesháad néehá ashede Donidi wo.listen to this pronounced

rosh

ihée

8  

Bíi ril wida Bétheni ithedaleth edin lethadi wa.listen to this pronounced

olin

obe

9  

Báa ham yul bebáade?listen to this pronounced

déela

nil

10  

Bíi eril mehelash háawith wáa.listen to this pronounced

yáanin thuletho bezhetha

ihé

11  

Báa aril bel Másha mahinath Hérel bedim?listen to this pronounced

nu

óobe

12  

Bíi eril medoth ábedá mudath waá.listen to this pronounced

belid

o, nil i ranil

Did you note the word “ranil” in #12? It’s formed, of course, from “ra–” (non–) + “nil” (inside), and means “outside.”

Translate the following into Láadan.

13  

I expect Mary will travel across Arkansas.

14  

Would that you (many) might move the plant through the gate.

15  

Anthony jumped behind the curtain.

16  

How (by what route) might Anna go to California?

17  

The boat will carry us upon the ocean from our family to a new place.

18  

Mice followed the grain under my pillow.

Did you note, in #6 & #13, the English versions with “I expect...” at the beginning? This is a natural outgrowth of “wa” (according to my perception) being set in the future, where I cannot reasonably claim to have direct experience. “Wa” also pertains to internal perceptions; in the future, this internal perception might be termed “expectation.”

Did you note the word “demeren” in my answer to #15? Composed of “dem” (window) + “ren” (carpet), it means “curtain.”

Did you have trouble with the word for “mouse” in #18? It’s “edemid” from “ede” (grain) + “mid” (creature).

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Answers

1  

Teresa danced along the street from her home to the beautiful park.

2  

How (by what route) is your mother bringing the kettle from the store?

3  

Prithee follow the furry creature across the river.

4  

Of course Margaret intends to travel around the blighted place.

5  

The helper tried to move the money upon the rug.

6  

I expect Matthew and Steven will jump over the huge stone.

 

7  

Once upon a time the aliens came to Earth from the star(s).

Bíi eríli mesháad néehá ashede Donidi roshemu ihée wo.listen to this pronounced

Once upon a time the aliens came to Earth from the star(s) (via a route) beyond the sun.

8  

Bethany is carrying a lamp to my cousin.

Bíi ril wida Bétheni ithedaleth edin lethadi olinemu obe wa.listen to this pronounced

Bethany is carrying a lamp through the forest to my cousin.

9  

Whence is the wind blowing?

Báa ham yul bebáade déelamu nil?listen to this pronounced

Whence is the wind blowing inside the garden?

10  

The children were playing.

Bíi eril mehelash háawith yáanin thuletho bezhethamu ihé wáa.listen to this pronounced

The children were playing (on a route) in front of their parents’ tree.

11  

Will Marsha bring flower(s) to Carol?

Báa aril bel Másha mahinath Hérel bedim numu óobe?listen to this pronounced

Will Marsha bring flower(s) to Carol (via a route) along here?

12  

The farmers followed the pig (I’m skeptical).

Bíi eril medoth ábedá mudath belidemu o, nil i ranil waá.listen to this pronounced

The farmers followed the pig around, inside and outside of the house (I’m skeptical).

 

13  

Bíi aril im Méri Araneshamu mesh wa.listen to this pronounced

14  

Bíi wil memina nen dalath urahumu obe wa.listen to this pronounced

15  

Bíi eril oób Ánetheni demerenemu ihée wáa.listen to this pronounced

16  

Báa rilrili sháad Ána Halishónadi bebáamu?listen to this pronounced

17  

Bíi aril wida esh leneth onida lenethade wobun wohothedi melamu nol.listen to this pronounced

18  

Bíi eril medoth edemid edeth thomemu yil wa.listen to this pronounced

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