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Lesson 15: Vocabulary Interlude 3

Vocabulary

boóbin

to braid

dadem

picture

delith

hair

dith

voice

doni (Doni)

earth, ground, soil (Earth, the planet)

e... e

either... or

el

to make

esh

boat

éthe

to be clean

ham

to be present; there is/are

híya

to be small

mi

leaf

naya

to care for

oma

hand

thi

to have

thóo

guest

úuya

to hurt; to feel pain

zhe

to be like; to be similar

zho

sound

zhub

insect

Note the “there is/there are” aspect of the verb “ham.” When “ham” is used in this way, it is never pluralized; this means that if you need to specify that “there are” more than one thing, then you’ll need to find another mechanism for showing the plural.

Examples

Bíi meliyen mi, i laya yu wa.listen to this pronounced

The leaves are green, and the fruit is red.

Bíi meliyen mi, izh laya yu wa.listen to this pronounced

The leaves are green, but the fruit is red.

Bíi meliyen mi e laya yu wa.listen to this pronounced

The leaves are green or the fruit is red.

Bíi e meliyen mi e laya yu wa.listen to this pronounced

Either the leaves are green or the fruit is red.

Note, in the third and fourth examples above, that “e” used singly (between two things) simply means “or.” It also can be used before each of the things to mean “either” the first “or” the second.

Bíi ham zho wa.listen to this pronounced

There is a sound.

Bíi ham woháya wozho wa.listen to this pronounced

There is a beautiful sound.

Bíi ham mewoháya wozho wa.listen to this pronounced

There are beautiful sounds.

Note, in the third example above, “zho” is plural. This is expressed by pluralizing the verb “áya” that is relativized with “zho.” As noted above, “Ham” used in the “there is/there are” sense is not pluralized.

Bíi éthe wohíya wohesh wáa.listen to this pronounced

The little boat is clean.

Bíi mehéthe mewohíya wohesh wáa.listen to this pronounced

The litte boats are clean.

Bíi mehéthe ra mewohíya wohesh wáa.listen to this pronounced

The little boats are not clean.

Báa mehéthe mewohíya wohesh?listen to this pronounced

Are the little boats clean?

 

Báa menaya bebáa Donith?listen to this pronounced

Who (plural) care for the Earth?

Bíi menaya len Donith wa.listen to this pronounced

We care for the Earth.

Exercises

Translate the following into English

1  

Bíi eril thi with mewohíya wohomath wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

2  

Báa aril menaya thul áwitheth?listen to this sentence pronounced

3  

Báa mid wodo wohomid?listen to this sentence pronounced

4  

Ra, mid woshane worul wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

5  

Báa mewoháya wodal ana?listen to this sentence pronounced

6  

Em, bezh bal i yu wi.listen to this sentence pronounced

7  

Bíi ril meduhel ben esheth wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

8  

Bíi zhe áath demeth wáa.listen to this sentence pronounced

9  

Bíi wíi woliyen wohesh wi.listen to this sentence pronounced

10  

Bíi eril en wohada wodená Láadan wáa.listen to this sentence pronounced

Note the lack of a Type-of-Sentence Word in #4 and #6. Because these are responses to #3 and #5, respectively, they will be statements by the nature of conversation—and they are signalled as such by starting with “ra” (no) and “em” (yes), respectively. As such, there is no need for the Type-of-Sentence Word; there is no danger of confusion.

In #5, if the “things” weren’t “beautiful”—or characterized by some other descriptor—we’d have no way (at least none we’ve seen yet) to indicate that there were more than one of them.

Translate the following into Láadan

11  

The bird will eat either fruit or grain.

12  

Margaret tried to help the old farmer.

13  

May wisdom cause peace!

14  

An aunt braids the hair.

15  

The grandson broke the container.

16  

The leaves are not fragrant, but the flower will be red and extremely fragrant.

17  

There was a clean insect.

18  

The busy worker will be present.

19  

Is the baker working or sleeping?

20  

Did the tired pigs feel pain?

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Answers

1  

The woman had small hands.

2  

Will the parents care for the baby?

3  

Is the animal a strong horse?

4  

No, the animal is a furry cat.

5  

Are the beautiful things food?

6  

Yes, they are bread and fruit.

7  

They (many) are trying to make a boat.

8  

The door is like a window.

9  

The green grass is alive.

10  

The laughing helper understood Láadan.

 

11  

Bíi aril yod babí e yuth e edeth wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

12  

Bíi eril duden Mázhareth wobalin wohábedáth wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

13  

Wil nin woth shoneth!listen to this sentence pronounced

14  

Bíi boóbin berídan delitheth wáa.listen to this sentence pronounced

15  

Bíi eril then hóowithid dimeth wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

16  

Bíi mehaba ra mi, izh aril laya i abahul mahina wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

17  

Bíi eril ham wohéthe wozhub wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

18  

Bíi aril ham woshóod wohalá wáa.listen to this sentence pronounced

19  

Báa hal e áana ebalá?listen to this sentence pronounced

20  

Báa eril mehúuya mewohóoha womuda?listen to this sentence pronounced

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