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Lesson 9: Vocabulary Interlude 2

Vocabulary

ábed

farm

ábedá

farmer

ada

to laugh

amedara

to dance

ash

star

babí

bird

boshum

cloud

déela

garden

dem

window

héena

sibling-of-the-heart

ma

to listen

omid

horse

osháana

to menstruate

rathal

to be bad

ro

weather

shóod

to be busy

wam

to be still; to be calm

woth

wisdom

yu

fruit

yul

wind

Here you’ll notice some more “constructed” words. “Rathal” means “to be bad” and is constructed from “ra–” meaning “not” or “non–” joined to “thal” meaning “to be good.” Another is “ábedá” (farmer) formed from “ábed” (farm) and “–á” (doer, one who...). And “boshum” (cloud) is formed from “bo” (mountain) and “shum” (air). Previously we saw “rahu” (to be closed), made from “ra–” (non–) and “u” (to be open). Láadan creates new words easily by the process of adding words and meaningful word-parts (linguists call these meaningful word-parts “morphemes”) together.

Examples

Bíi thal ro wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

The weather is good.

Bíi thal ra ro wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

The weather is not good.

Bíi rathal ro wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

The weather is bad.

Bíi rathal ra ro wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

The weather is not bad.

 

Báa lawida bebáa?listen to this sentence pronounced

Who is pregnant?

Báa lawida Másha?listen to this sentence pronounced

Is Marsha pregnant?

Bíi lawida ra Másha waá.listen to this sentence pronounced

Marsha is not pregnant (I’ve heard, but I don’t believe it).

Bíi lawida Másha wi.listen to this sentence pronounced

Marsha is pregnant, obviously.

Exercises

Translate the following into English

1  

Bíi yod omid wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

2  

Bíi amedara ra ábedá wáa.listen to this sentence pronounced

3  

Bíi ma héena wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

4  

Báa osháana thul?listen to this sentence pronounced

5  

Bíi wam ra yul wi.listen to this sentence pronounced

6  

Báa áana bebáa?listen to this sentence pronounced

7  

Bíi melaya ra yu wi.listen to this sentence pronounced

8  

Bíi meháya boshum wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

9  

Báa rathal ro?listen to this sentence pronounced

10  

Bíi dóon hothul wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

Translate the following into Láadan

You’ll need to supply Evidence Words; experiment with the meanings the various Evidence Words add to the Láadan that English is simply missing.

11  

The farms are closed.

12  

The men are amazed.

13  

The worker is busy.

14  

The garden thrives.

15  

Birds don’t needlework.

16  

The window isn’t open.

17  

Does the animal laugh?

18  

Does the star teach?

19  

Is the drink good?

20  

Who is alive?

Did you have any trouble forming the word for “worker” in #13? We know “hal,” the word for “to work;” all we need do is add the “agentive suffix,” “–á,” and we have “halá,” the word for “worker.”

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Answers

1  

The horse eats.

2  

The farmer does not dance.

3  

The heart-sibling listens.

4  

Is the mother menstruating?

5  

The wind is not still.

6  

Who is asleep?

7  

The fruits are not red.

8  

The clouds are beautiful.

9  

Is the weather bad?

10  

The grandmother is correct.

 

11  

Bíi merahu ábed wáa.listen to this sentence pronounced

12  

Bíi memíi withid wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

13  

Bíi shóod halá wáa.listen to this sentence pronounced

14  

Bíi tháa déela wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

15  

Bíi medathim ra babí wi.listen to this sentence pronounced

16  

Bíi u ra dem wa.listen to this sentence pronounced

17  

Báa ada mid?listen to this sentence pronounced

18  

Báa om ash?listen to this sentence pronounced

19  

Báa thal rana?listen to this sentence pronounced

20  

Báa wíi bebáa?listen to this sentence pronounced

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